According to Paul Yong, a highly respected researcher in pelvic pain: Dyspareunia is pain with vaginal penetration or insertion, which can occur with a digit, object, or penis. One way of classifying dyspareunia is the location of pain that occurs during penetration or insertion. “Superficial” dyspareunia refers to pain at the opening of the vagina (e.g. at the vulvar vestibule or vaginal introitus), which is often due to provoked vestibulodynia. “Deep dyspareunia” refers to pain that occurs with deeper penetration into the vaginal lumen, beyond the introitus.